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Caffeinated Coffee Reduces Risk of Congestive Heart Failure: Three Large Studies Have Shown

Caffeinated Coffee Reduces Risk of Congestive Heart Failure: Three Large Studies Have Shown

Source: Journal Circulation (February 2012)

Lifestyle Medicine Update (February 17, 2021)

As reported in the American Heart Association journal, Circulation, in February 2021, three large studies found that caffeinated coffee consumption is strongly associated with a significantly decreased risk of developing congestive heart failure. Congestive heart failure is the leading cause of hospital admissions in people over 65 years of age in this part of the world. Each of the three studies included at least 10 years of follow-up, and, collectively, they provided information on more than 21,000 U.S. U.S. adults.

The analysis revealed the following:

  • In the Framingham Heart Study, the risk of heart failure over the course of decades decreased by 5-to-12% per cup per day of coffee, compared with no coffee consumption.
  • In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the risk of heart failure was about 30% lower in people who drank at least 2 cups of caffeinated coffee a day.
  • Drinking decaffeinated coffee appeared to have an opposite effect on heart failure risk – significantly increasing the risk of heart failure in the Framingham Heart Study.
  • In the Cardiovascular Health Study, however, there was no increase or decrease in risk of heart failure associated with drinking decaffeinated coffee.
  • When the researchers examined this further, they found caffeine consumption from any source appeared to be associated with decreased heart failure risk, and caffeine was at least part of the reason for the apparent benefit from drinking more coffee.

So, to summarize, it appears to be the caffeine in coffee that has the protective effect. This, of course, is contrary to the widely held belief that coffee is bad for your health and bad for your heart. As well, these studies showed no increased risk of high blood pressure or palpitations in those who were regular consumers of caffeinated coffee. According to the federal dietary guidelines, three to five 8-ounce cups of coffee per day can be part of a healthy diet, but that only refers to “plain black coffee.” The American Heart Association warns that popular coffee-based drinks such as lattes and macchiatos are often high in calories, added sugar and saturated fat. In addition, despite its benefits, research has shown that caffeine also can be dangerous if consumed in excess. Additionally, children should avoid caffeine. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that, in general, kids avoid beverages with caffeine.

Other research has shown that drinking two to four cups of coffee per day is associated with decreased chronic liver disease and colon cancer risk.  Chronic liver disease is the 11th leading cause of death in the U.S and colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death.  Coffee contains several bioactive compounds that are shown to support liver health and block key steps in colon cancer development. One of these nutrients appears to be caffeine itself. So, if you like coffee and it doesn’t bother you (insomnia, jitters, etc.), then drinking 2-4 cups of caffeinated coffee per day may be one more health promoting strategy to consider. On the other hand, if caffeine bothers you, know that there are many other ways to reduce your risk of congestive heart failure, liver disease, and colon cancer. Drinking coffee is not an essential aspect of longevity and heart health.

In fact, studies have shown that supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 and Hawthorn are emerging as important strategies to reduce the risk of congestive heart failure after the age of 45 or 50. Our bodies make less Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as we age. CoQ10 is required by the heart muscle to convert food into energy. Thus, the age-related decline in CoQ10 synthesis results in a weaker heart pump, even in highly fit individuals, which is a main contributing factor in congestive heart failure. Hawthorn works synergistically with CoQ10 to boost energy production in the heart muscle as we age, helping to prevent age-related weakness of the heart muscle. So, to sum up, no need to feel guilty about having some caffeinated black coffee each day if you like it. And if you’re over the age of 45, then you might want to consider taking a supplement each day that contains CoQ10 and Hawthorn to help further guard against your heart muscle getting weaker as you age. This is something I do, personally.

I have included the references for this information in the text below.

References:

Laura M. Stevens, Erik Linstead, Jennifer L. Hall, David P. Kao. Association Between Coffee Intake and Incident Heart Failure Risk. Circulation: Heart Failure, 2021; https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.006799

 

Coffee and Liver Disease: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/275028


Coffee and Colon Cancer:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4874555/

 

Coenzyme Q10 and Heart Failure https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.115.002639?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%20%200pubmed

 

Hawthorn and Heart Failure: https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0215/p465.html

 

Eat Smart, Live Well, Look Great,

Dr. Meschino

 
 

Dr. James Meschino

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. James Meschino, DC, MS, ROHP, is an educator, author, and researcher having lectured to thousands of healthcare professionals across North America. He holds a Master’s Degree in Science with specialties in human nutrition and biology and is recognized as an expert in the field of nutrition, anti-aging, fitness, and wellness as well as the author of numerous books.

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Olive Oil and Omega-3 Fats Show Promise in Prevention and Complementary Management of Multiple Sclerosis

Olive Oil and Omega-3 Fats Show Promise in Prevention and Complementary Management of Multiple Sclerosis

Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation (November 2020)

Lifestyle Medicine Update (February 10, 2021)

In a previous Lifestyle Medicine Update I cited the scientific studies showing that extra virgin olive oil contains an abundance of phenolic compounds, which have been shown in human studies to lower the bad cholesterol (LDL), and reduce the rise in blood sugar (glucose) after a meal (compared to a meal containing corn oil), and they exhibit anti-cancer properties, which we think helps to explain the study showing a 68% lower risk of breast cancer in women following a Mediterranean diet that included extra virgin olive oil, compared to women following a Mediterranean diet that included olive oil, but not extra virgin olive oil. It’s extra virgin olive oil that contains the polyphenols shown to have anti-cancer properties.

A 2019 meta-analysis evaluation of all studies looking at extra virgin olive oil also showed that it raises the good cholesterol (HDL), which helps to remove cholesterol from the artery wall, opening-up blood vessels by reversing the build-up of plaque in the artery wall to some degree. As such, a growing number of studies, published in peer-reviewed journals, continue to suggest that using 2 teaspoons of extra virgin olive per day is a better choice than using most other vegetable or seed oils when it comes to preparing salad dressings, sautéing vegetables, onions, garlic, or chicken, or when making pasta and possibly other sauces.

A study published in November 2020 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation has shown that insufficient olive oil intake may be a culprit in the development and progression of Multiple Sclerosis. Studies suggest that environmental factors play a role in the development of M.S. One consistent factor that seems to stand out is that M.S. patients are known to have low levels of oleic acid – the main type of fat found in olive oil, which many researchers feel can lead to the development of M.S.  Why do they think that?  Well, many studies show that the monounsaturated fat, oleic acid, found in olive oil, plays a key role in the function of immune cells called T-regulatory Cells or Treg cells as they are commonly known. In M.S. patients Treg cells become dysfunctional allowing other immune cells to attack and destroy the body’s normal tissue and promote inflammation. This is the basis of all autoimmune diseases – our own immune cells attack normal body tissues. In the case of M.S, this involves immune cells attacking and destroying the myelin sheath that insulates our nerve cables leading to muscle weakness and paralysis. So, in the 2020 study researchers took Treg cells from the fat tissue of M.S. patients and exposed them either to arachidonic acid (a polyunsaturated fat found in high concentrations in high-fat meat products) or to oleic acid from olive oil. Within 72 hours the Treg cells exposed to arachidonic acid displayed increased activity of genes that promote inflammation. On the other hand, exposure to oleic acid (from olive oil) induced changes in Treg cells genes that restored normal function in a way that would suppress the action of other immune cells involved in the promotion and progression of M.S. Previous case-control studies have shown that a Mediterranean diet, which emphasizes olive oil, is associated with a decreased risk of developing M.S. As well, studies with M.S. patients have shown that a low-fat diet, supplemented with omega-3 fats and the inclusion of olive oil provides moderate benefits to those suffering from M.S.

It’s interesting to note that in the Nurses’ Health Study, which has followed over 80,000 registered female nurses in the U.S since 1984, nurses who regularly have the highest consumption of alpha-linolenic acid, the main omega-3 fat found in flaxseed oil, show an approximately 40% reduction in risk of developing M.S., compared to nurses who had the lowest consumption of this omega-3 fat. Fish and fish oil consumption were not associated with a decreased risk of M.S. in this study. Thus, the ingestion of flaxseed oil may also be a modifiable lifestyle factor in the prevention of M.S. Taken together, these studies further highlight the importance of avoiding foods high in inflammation-promoting and Treg cell suppressing arachidonic acid (from consumption of high fat meat products), while focusing rather on the regular intake of extra-virgin olive oil, nuts, and seeds to acquire oleic acid, as well as possibly supplementation with omega-3 fat-rich flaxseed oil – high in alpha-linolenic acid (and possibly fish and fish oil). Paying attention to consuming foods and supplements containing healthy fats and polyphenols, and avoiding unhealthy fats, is one more strategy that can help optimize health and prevent the development of various degenerative diseases, and possibly some autoimmune diseases as well.

I’ve included the references for all of this information in the text below

References:

1. Nutrition &Diabetes (2015)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26192450

F Violi, L Loffredo, P Pignatelli, F Angelico, S Bartimoccia, C Nocella, R Cangemi, A Petruccioli, R Monticolo, D Pastori, R Carnevale. “Extra virgin olive oil use is associated with improved post-prandial blood glucose and LDL cholesterol in healthy subjects.”  Nutrition & Diabetes (2015) 5, e172; 20 July 2015.

2. Molecular Cell Oncology (2015):

 Oleocanthol phenolic compound kill cancer cells: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26380379

3. JAMA (2015)

 Extra virgin olive oil shown to reduce breast cancer risk in over older, weight women http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2434738&resultClick=1

http://www.breastcancer.org/research-news/study-on-olive-oil-raises-questions

4. The FASEB Journal (2010)

Extra virgin olive oil outperforms regular olive oil in studies looking at atherosclerosis and inflammation in human and laboratory studies.

https://www.fasebj.org/content/24/7/2546

5. Frontiers of Nutrition Journal (2019)

Extra virgin olive oil increases blood HDL levels (meta-analysis)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379345/

6. Pompura SL, et al. Oleic acid restores suppressive defects in tissue-resident FOXP3 Tregs from patients with multiple sclerosis The Journal of Clinical Investigation.  Nov. 2019.

https://www.jci.org/articles/view/138519

7. Sedaghat F et al. Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of multiple sclerosis: a case-control study. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2016, 25; 2 : 377-384.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27222422/

8. Wernstock-Guttman et al. Low fat dietary intervention with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in multiple sclerosis patients. 2005, 73;3: 397-404.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0952327805001006

9. Alpha-linolenic acid (Flaxseed oil) in M.S. Prevention:

Bjornevik K et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler Journal. 2017, 23;14 : 1830-1838.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5494026/

Eat Smart, Live Well, Look Great,’

Dr. Meschino

Dr. James Meschino

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. James Meschino, DC, MS, ROHP, is an educator, author, and researcher having lectured to thousands of healthcare professionals across North America. He holds a Master’s Degree in Science with specialties in human nutrition and biology and is recognized as an expert in the field of nutrition, anti-aging, fitness, and wellness as well as the author of numerous books.

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Milk Thistle: Research update on liver health, type 2 diabetes, and immunity

Milk Thistle Research update on liver health, type 2 diabetes, and immunity

Milk Thistle: Research update on liver health, type 2 diabetes, and immunity

Source: Today’s Dietician (April 2020)

Nutrition / Natural Medicine Update (February 2, 2021)

In 2019, American consumers spent over $6 billion on herbal dietary supplements, which was an increase of 8.6% over the previous year. (1) Within this category, Milk thistle is the most commonly used herbal supplement in the United States for liver problems. In fact, sales of milk thistle supplements grew by 6% in 2019 alone. Approximately 890 tons of milk thistle supplements were sold world-wide in 2018, with North America and Europe purchasing the majority. (2) So, what is Milk thistle and why has it become so popular? Milk thistle is a prickly plant that has distinctive purple flowers and white veins. The active ingredients in milk thistle are a group of plant flavonoids collectively known as silymarin. The silymarin extracted from milk thistle is shown to have antioxidant, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties. Milk thistle is often promoted for its liver-protecting effects and has been shown in human studies to protect the liver against toxins like amatoxin, which is found in the deadly death cap mushroom.

There was one remarkable report of a California medical doctor, who saved the lives of almost an entire family after he got permission from authorities to use Milk thistle to treat family members who had fallen very ill after they inadvertently ate death cap mushrooms, realizing only afterward that they had swallowed a mushroom that was soon going to cause liver failure and kill them. In a timely manner, Dr. Todd Mitchell M.D. administered a high yield silymarin Milk thistle supplement to the family members, which saved the lives of all six family members, except for the 83-year-old grandmother. (3) Other studies have shown that Milk thistle supplementation can improve liver function in people with other liver diseases, suggesting it could help reduce liver inflammation and liver damage. One study also found that it may slightly extend the life expectancy of people with alcohol-induced liver cirrhosis.

More research is needed to examine all the mechanisms by which Milk thistle works to protect liver cells, but it is thought to reduce damage to the liver caused by free radicals, which are produced when your liver metabolizes toxic substances. This appears to be one important mechanism (4). Milk thistle supplementation has also been shown to improve type 2 diabetes management in human subjects. A study published in Diabetic Research in 2016 reviewed all available studies, involving a total of 270 type 2 diabetic patients. The results showed that Milk thistle supplementation lowered blood sugar (glucose) and hemoglobin A1c levels – a key marker for long-term blood sugar regulation. These effects were attributed to Milk thistle’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. (5)

Milk thistle also shows promising effects on improving immune system function. A 2017 review in the journal International Immunopharmacology highlighted the immune modulation effects of milk thistle, which suggests it may be helpful to reduce the risk of infections and as an adjunct in the management of various autoimmune disorders. (6) In animal models, Milk thistle has been shown to inhibit the growth of certain tumors and it enhances immune system function by increasing the proliferation of lymphocytes and interferon-gamma, IL-4 and IL-10 in a dose-dependent fashion. Meaning that the higher the Milk thistle dosage, the greater the immune system response. (7)

I personally, take a Milk thistle supplement each day that contains Milk thistle, standardized to 80% silymarin content, and also includes:

  • Indole-3-carbinol
  • Reishi mushroom extract
  • Astragalus

Research shows that these four natural agents work synergistically to help support liver health in a number of ways, as well as enhancing liver detoxification processes, they support immune system function, can improve blood sugar regulation, and they also exhibit anti-cancer properties in many experimental studies.

I have included the references on Milk thistle in the text below.

References:

1. https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/08/31/2086400/0/en/US-Herbal-Supplement-Sales-Increase-by-8-6-in-2019-Record-Breaking-Sales-Predicted-for-2020.html

2. https://www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/0420p14.shtmlhttps://www.healthline.com/nutrition/milk-thistle-benefits

3. https://news.ucsc.edu/2017/03/mitchell-todd-alumni-profile.html

4. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/milk-thistle-benefits

5. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27340676/

6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28672215/

7. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12444368/

Dr. James Meschino

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. James Meschino, DC, MS, ROHP, is an educator, author, and researcher having lectured to thousands of healthcare professionals across North America. He holds a Master’s Degree in Science with specialties in human nutrition and biology and is recognized as an expert in the field of nutrition, anti-aging, fitness, and wellness as well as the author of numerous books.

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How Artichoke Lowers Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and Blood Sugar

How Artichoke Lowers Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and Blood Sugar

How Artichoke Lowers Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and Blood Sugar

Source: Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, Vol. 4, No.1, 2016. p.60-68

Nutrition / Natural Medicine Update (February , 2016)

Abstract Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., Asteraceae family), an edible vegetable from the Mediterranean area, is a good source of phenolic compounds. Two varieties of artichoke were used in this study Green Globe (G) and Violet (V). Five major active phenolic compounds were identified into the aqueous methanolic extracts of artichoke leaves and heads. These compounds were identified as Chlorogenic acid, Cynarin, 1, 5-di-o-Caffeoylquinic, luteolin and apigenin.

On the other hand, the artichoke aqueous leaves extract (ALE) and aqueous heads extracts (AHE) for the two varieties were used as hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic experiments by using albino rats. ALE was used in the concentration of (1.5 g/kg/day) for the two varieties. AHE was used in two different concentrations (1.5 and 3 g/kg/day). Rats were administrated orally by these different concentrations. Results show the effect of ALE and AHE extracts on the glucose level of diabetic rats. The superior effect was with G4 (Group No. 4) rats administrated 1.5 g LEG/kg/day (Leaves Extract of Green Globe). On the other hand results of the influence of artichoke leaves and heads as hypocholesterolemic action was in a positive way on the level of total cholesterol and reduced LDL and triglycerides levels and increased the level of glutathione peroxides, meanwhile it reduced the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in rats serum. G3 (Group No. 3) [HFD (high fat diet) +1%cholesterol+1.5g LEG/kg/day] recorded the best results as hypocholesterolemic effect which could be attributed to their phenolic content. Our results indicated that, artichoke especially leaves extract of Green Globe (LEG) has good action as hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic.

On the other hand, artichoke leaves extract has been proposed to be antiathergenic, due to its lipid-reducing and antioxidant effects [24,48]. It is reported to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis in hepatocytes [15] decrease the oxidation of LDL [6,23,51]. Artichoke leaves extract (ALE) is also considered as choleretic, enhancing biliary excretion of cholesterol and increasing its conversion to bile acids [24]. In addition, ALE is known to have antimicrobial properties in gut, disrupting the intestinal microflora, thus affecting the absorption of various compounds including cholesterol [53]. Thus, ALE may influence the intestinal absorption and excretion of cholesterol from organism, besides suppression of endogenous cholesterol synthesis. The inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis is due to luteolin, which modulates the HMG-CoA reductase activity (the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway) [16,27]. Moreover, chlorogenic acid and luteolin may prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting low-density lipoproteins (LDL) oxidation [6]. Therefore, artichoke leaf extracts show hypocholesterolemic activity, due to two parallel mechanisms: reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis and inhibition of LDL oxidation [8,15]. Artichoke extracts are well tolerated, and may be useful for the preventive treatments of mild hypercholesterolemia.

Study Abstract:
http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfnr/4/1/10/index.html

Other link – Artichoke is a super food
http://www.oceanmist.com/artichokes/12-unexpected-artichoke-health-benefits/

Script:

Welcome to Lifestyle Medicine Update – Dr Meschino

Recent 2016 study in J of Food & Nutrition Research

Provided more evidence that Artichokes and A. Extract:

  • Help Reduce High Cholesterol Levels
  • Help Reduce High Blood Sugar Levels

Artichokes don’t get mentioned much in Health Discussions

So – recent study makes it a good time to bring them forefront

Previous human studies: 

Artichoke Leaf Extract – help lower high cholesterol and triglycerides

This 2016 study examined the mechanisms by which artichoke does this:

Study performed on Diabetic Rats showed: Artichoke Head and Leaf ingestion administration:

  1. Reduced total cholesterol and the Bad Cholesterol LDL by:
  2. Convert cholesterol to bile in the liver and excrete it
  3. Inhibited cholesterol synthesis
  4. Inhibited Cholesterol absorption
  5. Antioxidant – which may prevent oxidation to LDL – making it less atherogenic
  6. Increases liver protection against damaging agents as well
  7. Diabetic rats also showed reduction in blood sugar and triglycerides

5 Major Protective Compounds in Artichoke:

  1. Chlorogenic acid – antioxidant
  2. Cynarin – antioxidant
  3. Caffeoylquinic acid – cholesterol and triglyceride lowering effect
  4. Luteolin – inhibits cholesterol synthesis
  5. Apigenin – antioxidant

These 5 compounds appear to work synergistically to lower cholesterol and glucose.

So, including artichoke heads, hearts and/or leaves in your diet a 2-3 times per week

Maybe wise, especially if wanting to:

  • Lower cholesterol
  • Get your blood sugar lower
  • Support liver health
  • Boost antioxidant defense – one the richest sources of antioxidants of all foods
  • Increase dietary fiber

Artichokes are low in calories, but filling and can be a healthy substitute for starchy carbs at a meal

Or use them as filling, cholesterol-lowering snack as I sometimes do.

6. Chlorogenic acid – antioxidant

7. Cynarin – antioxidant

8. Caffeoylquinic acid – cholesterol and triglyceride lowering effect

9. Luteolin – inhibits cholesterol synthesis

10. Apigenin – antioxidan

Eat Smart, Live Well, Look Great!

Dr. James Meschino

Dr. James Meschino

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. James Meschino, DC, MS, ROHP, is an educator, author, and researcher having lectured to thousands of healthcare professionals across North America. He holds a Master’s Degree in Science with specialties in human nutrition and biology and is recognized as an expert in the field of nutrition, anti-aging, fitness, and wellness as well as the author of numerous books.

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Vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

Vegetarians protected against prostate cancer

Vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

Source: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (January, 2016)

Nutrition / Natural Medicine Update (February , 2016)

A large study published in January 2016 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed that men who are vegans had a 35% lower risk of developing prostate cancer. The study followed over 26,000 men, who are part of the Adventists Health Study-2. During the study, 1079 men developed prostate cancer. Researchers showed that vegan men had a 35% lower risk of developing prostate cancer compared to non-vegan men. This was especially true for white males, with a similar trend for black male vegans, although the association was not quite as strong

It’s not surprising that vegan men would have a lower risk of prostate cancer considering the various phytonutrients present in plant-based foods shown to inhibit prostate cancer develop Here are some examples:

Some nutrients shown to inhibit prostate cancer in plant foods:

  • Cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, bok choy, turnips) – indole-3 carbinol, sulfurophane
  • Tomatoes – lycopene
  • Soybeans and soy products – isoflavones and protease inhibitors
  • Peas and Beans – lignins, protease inhibitors
  • Green Tea – catechins (polyphenols)
  • Pomegranate Juice –ellagic acid
  • Ground Flaxseed – giving rise to enterolactone and enterdiol

Many studies show that regular consumption of these foods is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. As well, various ingredients from these foods have been made into supplements, which have shown promising results in improving outcomes in patients with prostate cancer as an adjunctive intervention, or in the prevention of prostate cancer, and also in studies where some of these nutrients have prevented pre-cancerous prostate cells from progressing to full-blown prostate cancer.

I know that most people are not going to become strict vegans, and swear off all animal foods, but including more plant foods containing proven anti-cancer properties is a very smart approach to help defend against prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer accounts for 27% of all male cancers, and is the 2nd most common cancer in men (if you don’t include various skin cancers).

For women, keep in mind that many of the same plant foods shown to reduce prostate cancer are the same foods and phytonutrients shown to reduce risk of breast cancer in various studies. So, I think everyone should be on board with this advice.

I have provided a link to the study in the text below.

Reference:

Tantamango-Bartley Y, Knutsen SF et al. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol 103, issue 1. 2016

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/103/1/153.abstract

Eat Smart, Live Well, Look Great!

Dr. James Meschino

Dr. James Meschino

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. James Meschino, DC, MS, ROHP, is an educator, author, and researcher having lectured to thousands of healthcare professionals across North America. He holds a Master’s Degree in Science with specialties in human nutrition and biology and is recognized as an expert in the field of nutrition, anti-aging, fitness, and wellness as well as the author of numerous books.