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LMU 29 – The Link Between Vitamin D, Omega-3 Fats, and Depression: Unravelling the Neurochemical Connection

Vitamin D and Omega-3 Fats in the Prevention and Treatment of Depression

LMU 29 – The Link Between Vitamin D, Omega-3 Fats, and Depression: Unravelling the Neurochemical Connection

Source: Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology Journal (2015)

Lifestyle Medicine Update (November 3, 2016)


Depression is a prevalent mental health condition that affects millions of people worldwide. Recent studies have shown a potential relationship between low vitamin D levels and an increased risk of depression. Additionally, preliminary research suggests that omega-3 fat supplementation, particularly from fish oil, may improve depression management when used in conjunction with antidepressant medications or as a singular therapy. Understanding the mechanisms behind these effects is crucial for developing effective preventive and treatment strategies. A study published in the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal in June 2015 has shed light on the fascinating connection between vitamin D, omega-3 fats, and depression.

The Role of Vitamin D in Serotonin Synthesis

Serotonin is a crucial neurotransmitter often referred to as the “feel-good” chemical. It plays a vital role in regulating mood and emotions. Vitamin D has shown to be essential in activating the synthesis of a key enzyme called tryptophan hydroxylase-2, which converts the amino acid tryptophan (found in food) into serotonin. While some antidepressant medications work by inhibiting serotonin breakdown to raise its levels, vitamin D appears to work differently by stimulating the brain to produce more serotonin. Vitamin D receptors are found on various types of brain cells, and when vitamin D binds to these receptors in specific brain regions, it travels to the nucleus of the brain cell, instructing genes to increase the production of tryptophan hydroxylase-2. This enables brain cells to manufacture more serotonin, suggesting that vitamin D may help prevent depression and aid in its recovery.

Omega-3 Fats and Serotonin Signalling

EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) are two essential omega-3 fats found in fish oil. They have been studied for their potential role in depression management. Evidence shows that EPA increases the release of serotonin from brain cells, allowing it to send its positive effects to neighboring brain cells. On the other hand, DHA enhances the fluidity of nerve cell membranes, making it easier for brain cells to receive serotonin messages from neighboring cells. Together, vitamin D, EPA, and DHA appear to synergistically increase serotonin production, release, and stimulation in key brain regions related to depression.

The Proposed Model: Preventing Brain Dysfunction

The researchers propose a model suggesting that insufficient levels of vitamin D, EPA, or DHA, combined with genetic factors and occurring at critical periods during development, may lead to dysfunctional serotonin activation and function. This dysfunction may be one underlying mechanism contributing to neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. The model suggests that optimizing vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid intake could help prevent and mitigate the severity of brain dysfunction associated with neuropsychiatric conditions.

Recommendations for Mental Health and Well-Being

Given the emerging evidence, it is advisable to ensure that your blood vitamin D level is at or above 85 nmol/L (35 ng/ml). If your levels are low, supplementation may be necessary. Additionally, considering a daily supplementation regimen supplying 800-1200 mg of fish oil can be beneficial for overall health and may help prevent or mitigate the severity of depression and other neuropsychiatric conditions.


The connection between vitamin D, omega-3 fats, and depression is a fascinating area of research that offers promising insights into preventive and treatment approaches for mental health conditions. The ability of vitamin D to stimulate serotonin production and omega-3 fats to enhance serotonin signalling underscores the importance of a well-balanced diet and lifestyle for mental well-being. Maintaining adequate vitamin D levels and incorporating omega-3 fats into your daily routine may not only contribute to better overall health but also support your emotional and mental resilience.


Patrick, R.P., Ames, B.N., Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior. FASEB, J. 2015, June 29(6):2207-22.

Dr. James Meschino


Dr. James Meschino, DC, MS, ROHP, is an educator, author, and researcher having lectured to thousands of healthcare professionals across North America. He holds a Master’s Degree in Science with specialties in human nutrition and biology and is recognized as an expert in the field of nutrition, anti-aging, fitness, and wellness as well as the author of numerous books.

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